Although this ailment is not life-threatening, Mallory-Weiss syndrome is unpleasant for patients - it causes pain in the abdomen, vomiting, changes the color of the stool, requires endoscopic examination for diagnosis. It occurs due to alcoholism and overeating. If you notice such symptoms in yourself, suffering from stomach disease, be sure to consult a doctor to avoid complications.
What is Mallory-Weiss Syndrome
Mallory-Weiss syndrome is a disease that is characterized by superficial ruptures of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract. Gaps are localized in the abdominal esophagus and the cardiac section of the stomach. Another name for the disease is gastroesophageal rupture and hemorrhagic syndrome. Risk group: men aged 45 to 60 years, suffering from alcohol addiction.
Causes of rupture of the gastric mucosa
Two main causes of the syndrome:
- Alcoholism. For the first time, the syndrome was recorded in fifteen patients with alcoholism. Intoxication causes vomiting, and the membrane of the walls of the esophagus is injured, which leads to a crack in the esophagus.
- Overeating - the membrane of the stomach stretches and becomes thinner, which becomes the cause of gastric bleeding.
In some sources, the third factor - predisposing - is called a hiatal hernia. All three reasons come down to the fact that pressure increases in the digestive tract, which causes rupture of the walls of the vessels of the esophagus. May cause an increase in pressure:
- vomiting - due to alcoholism, overeating, as well as infectious or inflammatory acute and chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
- pregnancy - in the last trimester, it can also injure the mucous membrane of the esophagus;
- incompetent doctors can damage the membrane of the esophagus during endoscopic examination of the digestive tract;
- cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
The main symptom is vomiting with blood (often with clots). The problem with this symptom is that in the initial stages of the disease, due to the fact that the rupture has just occurred, there will still be no blood in the vomit. The classical picture of longitudinal ruptures is noted only in 40% of cases. Other clinical manifestations (none of them is required, but possible):
- Sharp pain in the upper stomach, aggravated by vomiting. At advanced stages, the localization of pain is difficult to determine, and it spreads throughout the abdomen.
- The chair is black.
- General weakness and low blood pressure.
With significant blood loss, the following symptoms are observed:
- heart palpitations;
- cold sweat.
Diagnosis of the disease
For the diagnosis of Mallory-Weiss syndrome, apply:
- Laboratory blood tests - necessary to estimate the amount of blood loss, and to find out the patient's blood group (transfusion may be necessary).
- Esophagogastroscopy is a type of endoscopic diagnosis. Allows you to visually assess the picture of the disease, the number and location of gaps. Endoscopic intervention not only accurately determines the diagnosis, but also stops internal bleeding.
- Radiography of the abdominal cavity - is prescribed if doctors suspect a complete rupture of the gastric mucosa, and in order to identify possible complications.
Mallory-Weiss Syndrome Treatment
The tactics of treating ruptures of the walls of the stomach is aimed at normalizing the patient's condition, eliminating bleeding, and preventing the development of complications. The prognosis of treatment is favorable. Since this is not a surgical disease, conservative treatment is first applied. If it does not help, they turn to endoscopic treatment; if endoscopy is also not effective, they seek surgical treatment.
The following medications and procedures are prescribed to patients:
- adrenaline and aminocaproic acid solution - are injected through a Sengstaken-Blackmore probe directly into the stomach to stop bleeding;
- intravenous infusion therapy - in order to make up for the loss of blood, in acute blood loss, a transfusion is performed;
- antiemetic drugs;
- drugs that neutralize hydrochloric acid of gastric juice;
- enveloping preparations.
Ruptures cause internal bleeding, which in 90% of cases stops itself and does not resume. In the remaining 10 percent, Mallory-Weiss syndrome leads to severe active bleeding requiring surgical treatment. The disease is generally treated without surgery - it is indicated only to those patients who did not benefit from conservative treatment and endoscopic therapy. Beier operation is performed - surgeons manually sew longitudinal cracks, pre-cauterizing a bleeding gap.
Diet for Mallory Weiss Syndrome
Patients suffering from severe vomiting and bleeding are shown to refrain from eating. For the remaining patients, provided that the treatment is effective and vomiting is no longer manifested, it is permissible to eat only liquid food, followed by switching to normal food for two days. It is forbidden to overeat and drink alcohol.
Since alcoholism is the main cause of gastrointestinal bleeding, the amount of alcohol should be limited in order to avoid rupture of the lining of the stomach. In addition, the prevention of the disease includes the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including gastritis, stomach ulcers, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, bulimia, and other ailments, the clinical picture of which includes vomiting, on time. It is highly recommended not to overeat.Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.