Nevi (moles) are on the body of almost every person and in most cases are not dangerous. What is a birthmark and is it dangerous? Only some types of this formation are dangerous in that its malignancy is possible, i.e. turning into melanoma. Therefore, it is important to monitor each mole on your body.
What are nevuses and how do they look
Many people do not know about the nature of moles and due to the fact that these formations do not bother them during their life, they do not even remember their existence. What is a nevus from a medical point of view? This is an accumulation of pigment cells on the surface or in the skin layer, which is a congenital or acquired phenomenon. Congenital spots can be of different sizes - from 0.5 to 10 cm in diameter. The location on the torso, the size of these formations are initially embedded in human DNA and are already in the newborn, but are not visible until a certain age.
Causes of the appearance of nevi
Acquired nevus - what is it and why do moles appear? Pigment cells located between the epidermis and dermis can accumulate for the following reasons:
- ultraviolet radiation - provokes excessive production of melanin by the skin cells;
- hormonal changes - from hormonal changes in the body new ones may appear, old moles disappear;
- different types of radiation, injuries can cause migration of pigmented cells;
- heredity - the number, type, location of congenital pigmentation is genetically determined.
Types of Moles
Pigmented formations can be classified by their origin, size, color and location on the skin. Congenital birthmarks are different in shape, color, and the size of some can reach 10 cm in diameter. Depending on the location on the body, they may have hair on the surface (Becker stain). By nature, there are such types of nevi:
- vascular - arise due to atypical growth of capillaries (hemangioma, anemic);
- pigmented - due to an excess of melanin in the skin.
Pigmentary nevi have a number of varieties:
- by location - borderline (on the palms, feet, genitals), Ovus nevus (pigmentation on the face);
- by color, distribution pattern - blue (blue), brown, violet and pink spots, Setton nevus or halonevus (the spot is surrounded by white pigmentless skin), linear (several knots in a chain);
- in shape - flat and convex, papillomatous, warty, fibroepithelial, verrucous;
- by the nature of the forming cells - melanoform, melanocytic, sebaceous glands;
- by location in the skin layers - dermal, intradermal, intradermal, dysplastic, superficial.
Birthmark (ICD name - congenital non-tumor) or congenital nevus - what is it? In the photo on the Internet, you can see skin congenital formations of enormous size, which can be located on any part of the body, have a different color. Congenital pigmentation of a particular area is genetically determined with which a person is born. More often it does not pose a threat, however, many factors, external and internal, can trigger the growth and transformation of cells that can form melanoma - the most dangerous type of human cancer.
Melaniform nevi, which are composed of cells with melanin, are often congenital, but can also appear throughout life. Acquired moles are often melanocytic - with different types of cells, including and pigmented. Throughout life, under the influence of many environmental factors, a person may have the formation of any nature. Such acquired skin neoplasms should be monitored to avoid the risk of their malignancy (transformation into a malignant formation).
What is a histological examination of a mole
Histology of the nevus - what is it? This is a study of a mole on the risk of melanoma from it. Any birthmark carries a potential threat; under the influence of various factors, it can develop into a malignant formation - melanoma. This type of cancer is considered the most dangerous due to the lack of a response from the body. Melanoma can develop anywhere on the skin, on the mucous membrane, and even on the retina. Therefore, it is important to check your moles at least once a year with an oncodermatologist.
Due to the appearance of neoplasms, they are divided into melanocytic and melanoform. Melanocytic spots can form from three types of cells. So, melanocytic neoplasms, often benign, are:
- dermal (intradermal);
- mixed origin.
The epidermal moles are dark in color, often they are flat and small in size. Sometimes they have hairline. If epidermal spots protrude above the surface of the skin, become papillomatous, this may indicate a risk of developing melanoma from them, so it is important to conduct their histology on time. Melanoform spots are formed from cells with melanin, so they are brown in color, are congenital, non-hazardous, and can occur in a child in adolescence.
What is nevus on the skin melanoma
The concept of a melanoma-dangerous and melanoma-dangerous mole implies a risk of melanoma formation from it. Only a doctor after a histological examination can accurately say which mole is dangerous. However, there are medical statistics that show that some types of spots have a pronounced danger of melanoma formation and include nevi: pigment border, giant congenital, blue, Ota, Spitz, Dubreuv nevus. Description, photos of dangerous spots are easy to find on the Internet, but only a doctor can tell about the dangers of a particular education.
Diagnosis of nevi
The appearance and danger of spots on the skin are identified by the following methods:
- luminescent microscopy - a special device, a dermatoscope, translucent the skin to identify the cells of which the mole consists, at what depth and how they are formed;
- computer diagnostics - a multiple increase in the pigmented spot, its measurement and revealing of the structure;
- histology - laboratory determination of tumor markers.
If the pigmented areas of the skin throughout your life do not bother you and look normal, then most likely they do not carry any danger, but it does not mean that you can not monitor their condition. Timely diagnosis of changes will help to cure or remove the pigmented area in time to avoid its malignancy. How to treat moles that have caused suspicion? Today, surgical methods are used to remove suspicious skin lesions.
Surgical removal of the nevus
If the danger of a pigmented spot is identified, the doctor makes a decision about its removal. There are several surgical methods that are used depending on the type, location and nature of the neoplasm:
- resection - surgical removal of the nevus (excision) with a scalpel. Disadvantages - soreness, scars remain;
- spot irradiation of pigmentation with small doses of radiation;
- electrocoagulation - a bloodless removal method with sealed vessels;
- laser removal - fast, bloodless and painless, no scar left;
- cryotherapy - cauterization with dry ice or liquid nitrogen (not suitable for the treatment of intradermal spots).
Treatment of nevus folk remedies
Many people, having noticed new spots on their bodies, immediately begin to search for information with photos on the Internet, and then how to treat them. The network has many recipes for the folk treatment of moles, but how effective are they? Among the existing recipes, the following can be distinguished:
- Vinegar treatment. In folk recipes, it is advised to apply directly to affected skin. Such treatment can be dangerous with burns.
- Mixtures based on lemon juice. Lemon is known for its ability to whiten the skin, so with the help of such recipes you can only change the color of the skin, and not cure it. Lemon juice helps fight seasonal pigmentation on the face and neck.
- Cretaceous mixtures that brighten the skin.
- Lapis pencil. Mistakenly, this tool was attributed to methods of dealing with moles, but it is effective only in relation to warts.
Based on these recipes, we can conclude that independently undertaking the treatment of skin pigmentation of any kind is simply dangerous. Only a doctor can diagnose and treat intradermal, papillomatous and other neoplasms. A dermatologist or oncologist will be able to identify the nature of the formation on the skin, its degree of danger and treatment methods. Do not self-medicate in order not to injure your health and avoid the consequences of dangerous methods.