A disease in which local redness, rash and inflammation of the skin occurs is called dermatitis. The disease manifests itself in a person at any age. Dermatitis in children is usually the result of an infection, toxic effects on the skin, or a symptom indicating an allergy. To choose the right medicine, you need to identify the cause of the disease.
What is dermatitis
This is a skin disease that is caused by biological, chemical, physical or internal agents. In children, the pathology develops mainly against the background of a hereditary tendency to allergic reactions. Often, skin inflammation in infants occurs in the first months of life. What is dermatitis in children after 4 years, mothers know much less. The following groups are at risk:
- children with both parents suffering from any form of allergy;
- frequent infectious diseases of the mother during pregnancy;
- improper feeding;
- prolonged exposure to highly polluted environments (exhaust fumes, dyes, smoke).
Classification of Dermatitis
Skin disease groups have a complex classification. The types of dermatitis and the names of the subspecies depend on the following factors:
- body reaction to the action of the pathogen: inflammatory, infectious, allergic, fungal;
- the pathogen application method: orthopedic, retinoid, contact, atrophic;
- nature of the course of the disease: chronic, acute, subacute;
- rash size: nodular, numular, miliary;
- names by primary symptoms: scaly, vesicular, bullous;
- leading symptoms of a dermatological disease: itchy, exudative, dyshidrotic.
This type of skin disease is chronic. Allergic childhood dermatitis is a term that refers to a whole group of pathologies that develop against the background of an allergy that occurs due to a particular irritant. This is not a skin disease, but a sign of disorders in the immune system. Also, allergic dermatitis in children develops against a background of insufficiency of the liver and digestive system.
A baby, just born, is attacked by many microbes, to resist which the body learns only gradually. The process of generating antibodies does not start immediately, so the immune system responds inappropriately to allergens, causing inflammation of the dermis. For this reason, infants are more likely to experience various kinds of allergies.
Allergic dermatitis in children symptoms
Allergodermatitis manifests itself differently in each age category. The largest group is the period from birth to 2 years. Skin manifestations look like dry or wet hyperemic areas that are localized on the bends of the limbs and face. Often, symptoms spread to the trunk and scalp. What does allergic dermatitis look like in older children and adolescents:
- rashes on the knees, elbows, in the decollete, abdomen, neck, on the buttocks and even the external genitalia;
- swelling, redness of the epidermis with crusts and plaques;
- severe itching, scratching;
- with infection, pustules, weeping occur.
Neurodermatitis (dermatitis) is an extremely common disease in pediatric practice. Not all mothers know that atopic dermatitis is an ordinary diathesis, which has a more pronounced form. The term "atopy" is taken from the Greek word "alien", which is associated with the ingress of an allergen into the body. Its main difference from an allergic disease is expressed in the conditions of occurrence and the mechanisms of exposure. Treatment of atopic dermatitis in children is more difficult, since it is characterized by a genetic predisposition.
Atopic dermatitis symptoms
Like allergic dermatitis, atopic also passes in different ways, depending on age. The clinical picture is diverse and is determined by the severity and duration of the disease. Almost always, this type of inflammation is accompanied by severe itching, small peeling and a rash on any part of the skin. The child against this background becomes aggressive, excited. As a result of prolonged combing, thickening of the skin layers occurs.
Causes of atopic dermatitis in children
To know how to treat atopic dermatitis in a child, you first need to identify the cause of its occurrence. The disease manifests itself against the background of a combination of adverse environmental factors and genetic location. Atopic dermatitis causes:
- food allergy;
- severe pregnancy;
- intestinal dysbiosis;
- helminthic invasion;
- household allergens - pollen, mites, washing powders.
The disease is characterized by skin lesions in those areas that are in direct contact with the irritant. Contact dermatitis in a child can develop seasonally, especially often its manifestations are observed in winter. The disease takes place in several stages:
- at first, only redness and swelling (erythremal form) is observed on the skin of the child;
- then ulcers and sores are added (vesicular-painful stage);
- scabs are formed in place of ulcers, leaving scars after themselves (necrotic stage).
The causes of the inflammatory reaction of the epidermis can be low or high temperatures, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and increased skin sensitivity. Often, the disease is provoked by cosmetics, synthetic clothing, diapers or household chemicals. Insect bites or flowering plants may be involved in the appearance of this type of disease. Gold jewelry and other metals also sometimes provoke an allergic reaction on the child's body.
This disease indicates an infection in the body. The viral form of skin lesions is not so much an independent pathology as a symptomatic factor of other diseases. Infectious dermatitis in children can occur after chickenpox, rubella, measles or scarlet fever. Sometimes it manifests itself after surgery and getting into open wounds of staphylococci, streptococci or other pyogenic microorganisms. Skin reactions occur depending on the symptoms of the primary disease:
- with measles - a rash of a papular nature;
- with scarlet fever - spots of red color, merging with each other, forming extensive lesion sites;
- with chickenpox - subtle redness, eventually turning into small bubbles with transparent contents;
- with typhus, self-opening vesicles, in place of which a crust forms.
A variation of this skin inflammation affects the scalp, cheeks, nose, eyebrows, auricles, chest and back. In a mild form, seborrheic dermatitis manifests itself in the form of small exfoliating scales and dandruff. The severe form of the pathological process looks like foci of inflammation in the form of round or oval spots covered with a solid crust. The danger of the disease is that getting rid of it is extremely difficult, especially at a later stage, when the affected areas become infected and pus appears in them.
The causative agent of seborrhea is the Malassezia furfur fungi, which penetrate the skin and provoke gneiss (yellowish-gray crusts). Microorganisms are conditionally pathogenic, which means that they will live there permanently. As soon as favorable conditions occur, the fungi become activated and cause unwanted changes on the skin. Factors that trigger the mechanism of reproduction of microbes:
- Internal These include diseases of the nervous system, stressful situations, depression of the immune system.
- External These include: the adverse effects of poor ecology; washing the body and hair with products containing alkaline substances; profuse sweat, hereditary predisposition.
The disease is often latent in nature, so it is difficult to diagnose. Fungal dermatitis occurs both in acute and in chronic form. If it is not cured at the initial stage, then there is a high probability of infection of family members. The symptomatology of the disease is similar to other skin pathologies - it is an allergic rash, accompanied by a burning sensation, severe itching. If untreated, fungal eczema occurs on the legs and feet.
The main cause of fungal infections of the skin is infection of the mucous membrane or exposed areas of the body with pathogenic bacteria. Often this occurs when in contact with an already infected person, but there may be other reasons:
- taking medication;
- pathology of the gums or teeth;
- gastrointestinal problems;
- genetic features;
- diseases of the urinary system;
It is characterized by papular-spotted rashes in the chin and near-mouth cavity. Oral dermatitis in a child and an adult has the same clinical picture. In adolescence, the disease occurs more often, due to changes in hormones and lack of vitamins in a rapidly growing body. In infants, pathology can occur due to chapping of the skin in the cold or due to dysbiosis. The clinic of rashes is bright, specific, having certain characteristics:
- Localization. The rash occurs symmetrically in the chin and mouth. Between the rash zone there is a white strip of pristine skin.
- Prevalence. Acne can go to the nasolabial triangle and the corners of the lips.
- Number. First, single papules arise. As the pathology develops, they are grouped into conglomerates.
- Color, diameter. Papules are localized on red spots, but have a white color. Diameter - up to 3 mm.
- Concomitant manifestations. With improper therapy, pustules, weeping, irritation may occur. With too intensive treatment, the inflammatory process may worsen.
This type of disease is a consequence of the low lipid content in skin cells. Often dry dermatitis develops against the background of atopic or seborrheic, when an insufficient amount of ceramides is contained in the stratum corneum of the epidermis. Among the common causes of the disease, doctors distinguish:
- frost or drought;
- internal diseases of the body;
- psychosomatic factors;
- household irritants;
- insufficient humidity in the room;
- long-term medication;
- improper diet of the mother during lactation.
Treatment of dermatitis in children
Curing dermatitis in an infant is much easier than in girls and adolescent boys. Famous pediatrician Komarovsky claims that at the first sign of illness, parents need to contact an experienced pediatrician to establish the correct diagnosis. In order to cure the pathology, it is necessary to strictly comply with all the doctor's prescriptions. Special attention should be paid to the baby’s nutrition - look at the body’s reaction to the intake of any food, especially new one.
Medical treatment of dermatitis in children includes the appointment of tablets, creams, ointments, syrups. All drugs of external and internal action are divided into categories:
- glucocosticosteroids, which reduce inflammation, reduce itching;
- antihistamines that relieve allergic manifestations;
- antiseptic, helping to destroy microbes;
- immunostimulants that enhance immunity;
- dexpanthenol used to treat skin at any stage.
After diagnosing skin inflammation, it is important to eliminate the cause of the disease. For example, atopic dermatitis, the prevention of which is diet, can be removed if the allergen that triggered the disease is excluded. If the pathology occurred in a baby on artificial feeding, then the main preventive measures are enhanced hygiene and a review of milk formulas.
With seborrhea, it is necessary to exclude cosmetics that cause suspicion - it is better to do them yourself at home from folk remedies. Additionally, it is necessary to regularly smear the scalp with a drug recommended by a pediatrician. With exacerbation of seborrhea, polydermatitis, or another type of skin inflammation, it is necessary to plant the child on a special diet that excludes preservation, smoked meats, beekeeping products, nuts, seasonings, citrus fruits, cocoa and some berries from the daily menu.
Video: dermatitis in a child
Dermatitis in children photo
Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.